Latvia needs improved tax system to deliver better services to its citizens, says World Bank 31/01/2018
If Latvia wants to meet the rising expectations among its citizens for better public services, such as health, education, and transportation, it should consider increasing revenues through improving its taxation system, according to the World Bank.
The forthcoming report, which will summarize the findings from a year-long review, finds that tax revenues in Latvia are lower than in many similar countries, while social inequality remains higher in comparison to many European Union (EU) countries. The tax revenue to GDP rate in Latvia, at some 29 percent, in one of the lowest in the EU – 10 percentage points below the EU average and about 5 percentage points below the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) average.
“Latvia needs to find ways to increase revenues to meet its spending needs, especially supporting investments in education and skills for people,” says Carlos Piñerúa, the World Bank Country Manager responsible for Latvia. “Currently, inequalities in Latvia are higher than in other, comparable countries. However, short-term prospects for growth are good, which should make it easier to raise more revenue to target assistance to low-income workers and families.”
The Word Bank’s report shows that collecting an additional three percentage points of GDP in tax revenues, as targeted by the government, will require substantial changes to the country’s tax system, as well as to a number of complementary policies. The report focuses on four areas: broadening the tax base, increasing tax rates, reducing tax evasion, and increasing tax progressivity.
The review shows that increases in tax compliance and decreases in tax evasion are simultaneously achievable. Phasing out the current microenterprise tax regime could help reduce tax avoidance and unfair tax competition. This move could also increase contributions to social security and reduce the relatively high tax on low-income labor – which could encourage employment.
The report also notes that the most appropriate instruments for tackling inequality are direct personal income taxes and benefits. More progressivity in the Personal Income Tax (PIT) system could help reduce the tax burden for lower-income earners and inequality in Latvia, if combined with means-tested social assistance.
According to World Bank calculations, the introduction of a three-tier PIT tax scale (19%, 23% and 29%) combined with an earned-income tax credit, would both decrease inequality and increase budgetary revenues.
“This review offers a list of measures designed to increase tax revenue from 29 percent of GDP at present to the government target of 32 percent,” said Emilia Skrok, Senior Economist at the World Bank and co-author of the report. “In recent years, the Latvian economy has suffered from volatility and vulnerability, thus it needs to build a fiscal buffer which will increase the resilience of the country.”
About the World Bank:
The World Bank is an international financial institution with the mission to fight poverty and support inclusive growth. The World Bank Group comprises five institutions: International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), International Development Association (IDA), International Finance Corporation (IFC), Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA) and International Center for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID). Operating in over one hundred countries, the World Bank Group institutions provide financing, policy advice and other support services to help countries solve their most burning development policy issues.